The technique of depositing a thin layer of metal onto a substrate or previously obtained thin layer is called surface deposition. The "thinness" here is a relative concept, but most deposition techniques can control the thickness of the thin layer in the range of several to several tens of nanometers. The molecular beam epitaxy technology can obtain a single atomic layer structure.
Deposition techniques have applications in optical instruments (anti-reflection films, anti-reflection films, self-cleaning surfaces, etc.), electronic technologies (thin film resistors, semiconductors, integrated circuits), packaging, and modern art. When the film thickness requirements are not high, similar deposition techniques are often used. For example, the process of purifying copper by electrolysis, depositing silicon, and purifying uranium all use processes similar to chemical meteorological deposition.
Deposition techniques can be divided into two broad categories based on the main principles of their use: physical deposition and chemical deposition.
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